My Letter in Support of Pvt. Bradley E. Manning

(THE FOLLOWING IS A LETTER OF SUPPORT FOR PVT. BRADLEY E. MANNING WRITTEN TO THE COMMANDING GENERAL OF THE MILITARY DISTRICT  OF WASHINGTON, MAJ. GENERAL JEFFREY S. BUCHANAN. ALSO, AS REQUESTED, THE USE OF “BRADLEY” AND “HE” IS DELIBERATE AS THE CASE USES MANNING’S LEGAL NAME. THOSE INTERESTED IN WRITING THEIR OWN OWN LETTER SHOULD DO SO VIA “COURAGE TO RESIST”.)

9/25/2013

Dear Maj. General Buchanan,

I write this letter to you, as a citizen of the United States, in order to respectfully request that Pvt. Bradley E. Manning’s sentence be reduced to time served, and that he not be condemned to a life in prison. The United States is a country that prides itself on being built by women and men of conscience and bravery. To act upon one’s conscience is no small matter. Women and men who were, and are, willing to stand up for what they believe to be right — even if the price for that action is the loss of their own personal safety or liberty — are rare and worthy of respect.

In Pvt. Manning’s case it is clear that he did not act with malicious intent or a desire to harm the United States, and his acquittal on the “Aiding the Enemy” charge is a clear indication of that fact. Pvt. Manning has served a significant amount of prison time, much of it in what must honestly be described as harsh conditions. There is no conceivable way in which Pvt. Manning would have benefited (financially or otherwise) from his actions. On the contrary, it was likely obvious to him that he would be looking at time in prison because of what he did.

If we are to maintain trust in the law and a prison system, then there needs to be a clear sense of proportionality. The purpose of the law and prison should not be to “make an example” of anyone.  In theory, prison exists as punishment, and to protect the general population from individuals who have broken the law and might pose a danger to society. Even if we accept that Pvt. Manning has broken the law, he has served time. Hard time. And, I think it is clear that he serves no danger to the general population. The question then arises: what purpose would an extended prison sentence serve? If it is not to pick out Pvt. Manning and make an example of him, then I cannot conceive of another reason. This would be a mistake.

Considering all of these factors, it is my hope that the punishment Pvt. Manning has already endured will be seen as proportional to the act committed: an act committed in what he honestly considered to be the best interests of his country.

Yours Respectfully,

Prof. Christian Christensen

300 words on 9/11

There were moments on that day 11 years ago when the United States was seen as something other than a military or economic superpower. It was seen as a nation of vulnerable citizens: Americans were at one and the same time confused, brave, scared and generous, defying simplistic Hollywood stereotypes of what is a complex, multi-faceted country. As I sat in my apartment in Austin, Texas and watched the buildings burn and collapse, it seemed that a threshold had been crossed, and that claims that “things would never be the same,” while painfully clichéd, contained a grain of truth. It is (and was) naïve to think that the events of September 11, 2001 would convert the United States from military bully to benevolent protector, but that is not what most people I knew thought. Not even close. What did seem possible, at least, was that an element of reflexivity would be injected into the American psyche and, in turn, US geo-politics.  The US had global goodwill on its side (a rare commodity), and the question was how the US might utilize that goodwill.

It is both tragic and ironic, therefore, that state violence and a curtailment of fundamental freedoms at home and abroad has been the Bush/Obama response to the violent “attacks on freedom” of September 11, 2001. From Abu Ghraib, to Guantamamo, to the Patriot Act, to Afghanistan, to “extraordinary rendition”, to waterboarding, to drone killings, to Bradley Manning to surveillance, the America of September 11, 2012 is a less free, more violent country than it was 11 years ago. The unselfish, collectivist mentality of the people of New York that so impressed the world was quickly, predictably usurped by all-too-familiar US global realpolitik based on economics, individualism and repression.  This is a sad anniversary, for lots of reasons.

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